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18W Power Delivery AC Wall Charger

by Sandstrom

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How the Sandstrom 18W PD AC Charger Supports USB Power Delivery for Charging Your Apple iPhone or iPad

The Sandstrom 18W PD AC Charger can be useful for keeping your Apple iPhone or iPad charged. The single USB Type-C output port on the charger supports USB Power Delivery technology to offer fast charging up to 18W for recent Apple iPhone's and iPad's that can use USB Power Delivery like the Apple iPhone XSiPhone XS MaxiPhone XRiPhone X10.5-inch iPad Pro and 12.9-inch iPad Pro over the Lightning connector or even the Apple 11-inch iPad Pro (2018) over USB Type-C.

The Sandstrom 18W PD AC Charger ships with its own 1 m USB Type-C to Lightning cable and states on its box to support the common USB Power Delivery profiles of 15 watts (5 volts @ 3 amps), 18 watts (9 volts @ 2 amps) and 18 watts (12 volts @ 1.5 amps) for charging out.

To observe the power capabilities of the Sandstrom 18W PD AC Charger, we used the USB Power Test App from Granite River Labs with the Granite River Labs USB Power Delivery Compliance C2 Tester to generate the following test results.

The USB Power Test App first negotiates a power contract for every PDO supported by the Sandstrom charger, and increases the load gradually to find the threshold where over current protection (OCP) kicks in and voltage and current start to drop for safety reasons.

The USB Power Test App reports out all the PDO's supported by the Sandstrom charger and their OCP thresholds. Note the PDO's listed are also showing Augmented PDO's (APDO's) even though the charger's box and casing only state fixed PDO's, and also this charger caters for Apple devices which do not support APDO's. OCP thresholds for the APDO's are also very low for both PDO #4 and PDO #5.

PDOOCP
PDO#1 Fixed: 5V 3A3.56
PDO#2 Fixed: 9V 2A2.37
PDO#3 Fixed: 12V 1.5A1.73
PDO#4 PPS: (3.3~5.9)V 3A2.63
PDO#5 PPS: (3.3~11)V 2A2.02

The USB Power Test App takes this data to produce an I-V curve which graphically shows the relationship between voltage and current for each PDO. Interestingly, unlike other chargers that support PPS (Programmable Power Supply), no current fold-back behavior is observed for all the PDO's except for PDO #5. We can see the voltage immediately shuts off once the current crosses the OCP threshold rather than curving down.  

The USB Power Test App can also use the Granite River Labs USB Power Delivery Compliance C2 Tester integrated with the GW Instek APS-7100 programmable AC power supply to compare the charger's power output vs power input so that power efficiency can be measured and compared to regulatory limits from United States of Energy (DOE) Level VI or European Union's CoC Tier 2 requirements. We can repeat the power efficiency tests for different PDO's, current load conditions, and different AC input ranges, allowing us to get a complete picture of power efficiency ranges across all different usage scenarios.

Using the USB Power Test App and FLIR thermal imaging tools, we measured the heat emitted by the Sandstrom charger as seen in the following temperature graph for the highest 12V, 1.5A fixed PDO, which recorded max temperature of around 62.2 degree Celsius.

Using the USB Power Delivery Compliance C2 Tester from Granite River Labs to run just a subset of the full USB Power Delivery compliance test suite, we can confirm that the Sandstrom charger supports the following fixed PDO's- 15 watts (5 volts @ 3 amps), 18 watts (9 volts @ 2 amps) and 18 watts (12 volts @ 1.5 amps) as well as APDO's of 3.3~5.9 volts @ 3 amps and 3.3~11 volts @ 2 amps. Note some compliance failures were also observed for this charger.

Source Capabilities

Parameter

GetCapabilities

Src_PDO_Supply_Type #1

Fixed

Src_PDO_Voltage #1

5000

Src_PDO_Max_Current #1

3000

Src_PDO_Supply_Type #2

Fixed

Src_PDO_Voltage #2

9000

Src_PDO_Max_Current #2

2000

Src_PDO_Supply_Type #3

Fixed

Src_PDO_Voltage #3

12000

Src_PDO_Max_Current #3

1500

Src_PDO_Supply_Type #4

Augmented_PDO

Src_PDO_Max_Voltage #4

5900

Src_PDO_Min_Voltage #4

3300

Src_PDO_Max_Current #4

3000

Src_PDO_Supply_Type #5

Augmented_PDO

Src_PDO_Max_Voltage #5

11000

Src_PDO_Min_Voltage #5

3300

Src_PDO_Max_Current #5

2000

Power Delivery 3.0 Tests- Result Summary

Sl No

Test ID

Test Name

Test Result

1

TD.PD.LL3.E1

TD.PD.LL3.E1 GoodCRC Specification Revision compatibility

PASS

2

TD.PD.LL3.E2

TD.PD.LL3.E2 Retransmission

PASS

4

TD.PD.SRC3.E1

TD.PD.SRC3.E1 Source Capability Fields Checks

PASS

5

TD.PD.SRC3.E2

TD.PD.SRC3.E2 Accept Fields Checks

PASS

6

TD.PD.SRC3.E3

TD.PD.SRC3.E3 PSRDY Fields Checks

PASS

7

TD.PD.SRC3.E4

TD.PD.SRC3.E4 Specification Revision Check after Contract

PASS

8

TD.PD.SRC3.E5

TD.PD.SRC3.E5 Source Capabilities Extended sent timely

PASS

9

TD.PD.SRC3.E6

TD.PD.SRC3.E6 Source Capabilities Extended Fields Checks

PASS

10

TD.PD.SRC3.E7

TD.PD.SRC3.E7 Battery Status sent Timely

PASS

11

TD.PD.SRC3.E8

TD.PD.SRC3.E8 Battery Status Fields Checks

PASS

12

TD.PD.SRC3.E9

TD.PD.SRC3.E9 Battery Status Fields Checks Invalid Battery reference

PASS

13

TD.PD.SRC3.E10

TD.PD.SRC3.E10 Unrecognized Message Received in Ready State

PASS

14

TD.PD.SRC3.E11

TD.PD.SRC3.E11 Get Status Fields Checks

PASS

15

TD.PD.SRC3.E12

TD.PD.SRC3.E12 Get Battery Status Fields Checks

PASS

16

TD.PD.SRC3.E13

TD.PD.SRC3.E13 Status sent timely

PASS

17

TD.PD.SRC3.E14

TD.PD.SRC3.E14 Status Fields Checks

PASS

18

TD.PD.SRC3.E15

TD.PD.SRC3.E15 Battery Capabilities sent timely

PASS

19

TD.PD.SRC3.E16

TD.PD.SRC3.E16 Battery Capabilities Fields Checks

PASS

20

TD.PD.SRC3.E17

TD.PD.SRC3.E17 Battery Capabilities Fields Checks Invalid Battery Reference

PASS

21

TD.PD.SRC3.E18

TD.PD.SRC3.E18 Manufacturer Info Sent Timely

PASS

22

TD.PD.SRC3.E19

TD.PD.SRC3.E19 Manufacturer Info Fields Checks

PASS

23

TD.PD.SRC3.E20

TD.PD.SRC3.E20 Manufacturer Info Fields Checks Invalid Manufacturer Info Target

PASS

24

TD.PD.SRC3.E21

TD.PD.SRC3.E21 Manufacturer Info Fields Checks Invalid Manufacturer Info Ref

PASS

27

TD.PD.SRC3.E24

TD.PD.SRC3.E24 Unexpected Message Received in Ready State

PASS

28

TD.PD.SRC3.E25

TD.PD.SRC3.E25 Receiving chunked extended message

PASS

29

TD.PD.SRC3.E26

TD.PD.SRC3.E26 Soft Reset sent regardless of Rp value

PASS

30

TD.PD.SRC3.E27

TD.PD.SRC3.E27 PPS Status Sent Timely

PASS

31

TD.PD.SRC3.E28

TD.PD.SRC3.E28 PPS Status Fields Check

PASS

32

TD.PD.SRC3.E29

TD.PD.SRC3.E29 SourcePPSCommTimer Deadline

PASS

33

TD.PD.SRC3.E30

TD.PD.SRC3.E30 SourcePPSCommTimer Timeout

PASS

34

TD.PD.SRC3.E31

TD.PD.SRC3.E31 SourcePPSCommTimer Stopped

PASS

36

TD.PD.SRC3.E33

TD.PD.SRC3.E33 Country Codes Sent Timely

PASS

37

TD.PD.SRC3.E34

TD.PD.SRC3.E34 Country Codes Fields Checks

PASS

38

TD.PD.SRC3.E35

TD.PD.SRC3.E35 Country Info Sent Timely

PASS

39

TD.PD.SRC3.E36

TD.PD.SRC3.E36 Country Info Fields Checks

PASS

40

TD.PD.VDM3.E1

TD.PD.VDM3.E1 Fields Checks Discover Identity

PASS

42

TD.PD.VNDI3.E3

TD.PD.VNDI3.E3 VDM Identity

FAIL

45

TD.PD.VNDI3.E6

TD.PD.VNDI3.E6 Unchunked Extended Messages Supported

FAIL

46

TD.PD.VNDI3.E7

TD.PD.VNDI3.E7 Security Msgs Supported

FAIL

PD2 Deterministic Tests- Result Summary

Sl No

Test ID

Test Name

Test Result

1

TD.PD.LL.E1

TD.PD.LL.E1 GoodCrc Timing

PASS

2

TD.PD.LL.E2

TD.PD.LL.E2 Retransmission

PASS

3

TD.PD.LL.E3

TD.PD.LL.E3 Soft Reset Usage

PASS

4

TD.PD.LL.E4

TD.PD.LL.E4 Hard Reset Usage

PASS

5

TD.PD.LL.E5

TD.PD.LL.E5 Soft Reset

PASS

6

TD.PD.SRC.E1

TD.PD.SRC.E1 Source Capabilities sent timely

PASS

7

TD.PD.SRC.E2

TD.PD.SRC.E2 Source Capabilities Fields Checks

PASS

8

TD.PD.SRC.E3

TD.PD.SRC.E3 SourceCapabilityTimer Timeout

PASS

9

TD.PD.SRC.E4

TD.PD.SRC.E4 SenderResponseTimer Deadline Request

PASS

10

TD.PD.SRC.E5

TD.PD.SRC.E5 SenderResponseTimer Timeout Request

PASS

11

TD.PD.SRC.E6

TD.PD.SRC.E6 PSHardResetTimer Timeout

PASS

12

TD.PD.SRC.E7

TD.PD.SRC.E7 Accept sent timely

PASS

13

TD.PD.SRC.E8

TD.PD.SRC.E8 Accept Fields Checks

PASS

14

TD.PD.SRC.E9

TD.PD.SRC.E9 PS RDY sent timely

PASS

15

TD.PD.SRC.E10

TD.PD.SRC.E10 PS RDY Fields Checks

PASS

16

TD.PD.SRC.E11

TD.PD.SRC.E11 Accept Requests can be met

PASS

17

TD.PD.SRC.E12

TD.PD.SRC.E12 Reject Requests cannot be met

PASS

18

TD.PD.SRC.E13

TD.PD.SRC.E13 Reject Request Invalid Object Position

PASS

19

TD.PD.SRC.E14

TD.PD.SRC.E14 Atomic Message Sequence

PASS

20

TD.PD.SRC.E15

TD.PD.SRC.E15 Give Source Cap

PASS

21

TD.PD.SRC.E16

TD.PD.SRC.E16 PDO Transition

PASS

22

TD.PD.VDMD.E1

TD.PD.VDMD.E1 tVDMSenderResponse Deadline Discover Identity

NA

23

TD.PD.VDMD.E2

TD.PD.VDMD.E2 tVDMSenderResponse Timeout Discover Identity

NA

24

TD.PD.VDMD.E3

TD.PD.VDMD.E3 Incorrect Fields Discover Identity

PASS

25

TD.PD.VDMD.E4

TD.PD.VDMD.E4 Applicability

PASS

26

TD.PD.VNDI.E4

TD.PD.VNDI.E4 SOP Handling

INCOMPLETE

27

TD.PD.VNDI.E5

TD.PD.VNDI.E5 Source Capabilities

INCOMPLETE

28

TD.PD.PHY.E1

TD.PD.PHY.E1 BIST Test Data

PASS

31

TD.PD.PHY.E4

TD.PD.PHY.E4 Transmitter Bit Rate and Bit Rate Drift

PASS

33

TD.PD.PHY.E6

TD.PD.PHY.E6 Receiver Swing Tolerance

PASS

34

TD.PD.PHY.E7

TD.PD.PHY.E7 Receiver Bit Rate Tolerance

PASS

35

TD.PD.PHY.E8

TD.PD.PHY.E8 Receiver Bit Rate Deviation Tolerance

PASS

36

TD.PD.PHY.E9

TD.PD.PHY.E9 Valid SOP Framing

PASS

37

TD.PD.PHY.E10

TD.PD.PHY.E10 Invalid SOP Framing

PASS

38

TD.PD.PHY.E11

TD.PD.PHY.E11 Valid SOP P Framing

PASS

39

TD.PD.PHY.E12

TD.PD.PHY.E12 Invalid SOP P Framing

PASS

40

TD.PD.PHY.E13

TD.PD.PHY.E13 Valid SOP PP Framing

PASS

41

TD.PD.PHY.E14

TD.PD.PHY.E14 Invalid SOP PP Framing

PASS

42

TD.PD.PHY.E15

TD.PD.PHY.E15 SOP P_Debug SOP PP Debug Framing

PASS

43

TD.PD.PHY.E16

TD.PD.PHY.E16 Valid Hard Reset Framing

PASS

44

TD.PD.PHY.E17

TD.PD.PHY.E17 Invalid Hard Reset Framing

PASS

45

TD.PD.PHY.E18

TD.PD.PHY.E18 Valid Cable Reset Framing

PASS

46

TD.PD.PHY.E19

TD.PD.PHY.E19 Invalid Cable Reset Framing

PASS

47

TD.PD.PHY.E20

TD.PD.PHY.E20 EOP Framing

PASS

48

TD.PD.PHY.E21

TD.PD.PHY.E21 Preamble

PASS

PD2 Communication Engine Tests- Result Summary

Sl No

Test ID

Test Name

Test Result

1

TDA.2.1.1.1

TDA.2.1.1.1 BMC PHY TX EYE

PASS

2

TDA.2.1.1.2

TDA.2.1.1.2 BMC PHY TX BIT

PASS

3

TDA.2.1.2.2

TDA.2.1.2.2 BMC PHY RX INT REJ

PASS

4

TDA.2.1.2.1

TDA.2.1.2.1 BMC PHY RX BUSIDL

PASS

5

TDA.2.1.3.1

TDA.2.1.3.1 BMC PHY TERM

PASS

6

TDA.2.1.3.2

TDA.2.1.3.2 BMC PHY MSG

PASS

7

TDA.2.2.1

TDA.2.2.1 BMC PROT SEQ GETCAPS

PASS

8

TDA.2.2.2.1

TDA.2.2.2.1 BMC PROT SEQ CHKCAB P PC

FAIL

9

TDA.2.2.2.2

TDA.2.2.2.2 BMC PROT SEQ CHKCAP NOMARK P PC

PASS

13

TDA.2.2.7

TDA.2.2.7 BMC PROT BIST NOT 5V SRC

PASS

15

TDA.2.2.9

TDA.2.2.9 BMC PROT GSC REC

PASS

16

TDA.2.3.1.1

TDA.2.3.1.1 POW SRC LOAD P PC

FAIL

17

TDA.2.3.2.1

TDA.2.3.2.1 POW SRC TRANS P PC

PASS

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